Rotterdam is the second city and municipality in the Netherlands.
It is in the province of South Holland, at the mouth of the Nieuwe Maas channel leading into the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta at the North Sea. Its history goes back to 1270, when a dam was constructed in the Rotte. In 1340, Rotterdam was granted city rights by the Count of Holland.
A major logistic and economic centre, Rotterdam is Europe’s largest seaport. In 2020, it had a population of 650,000 and is home to over 180 nationalities. Rotterdam is known for its university, riverside setting, lively cultural life, maritime heritage and modern architecture. The near-complete destruction of the city centre in the Second World War Rotterdam Blitz has resulted in a varied architectural landscape, including sky-scrapers designed by architects such as Rem Koolhaas, Piet Blom and Ben van Berkel.